he working women has gradually developed in the twentieth century , under the influence of social and economic developments. Women now represent 50.4% of the workforce and their number is increasing in most economic sectors. But men and women are still distributed unequally between trades .
In addition, for the past 40 years, women have held eight out of ten part-time jobs , generally low-skilled and low-paid positions.
Feminized jobs more often part-time
A profession comprising at least 65% of women or men is considered to be single -sex . Part-time work is more common in feminized professions.
- 45 predominantly male professions exercised by 38% of employees with 64% men (including 3% part-time) and 12% women (16% part-time);
- 24 predominantly female jobs carried out by 43% of employees with 70% women (including 33% part-time) and 18% men (9% part-time). The jobs of maintenance worker, teacher and caregiver alone employ one fifth of salaried women.
We also distinguish part-time :
- constrained : attached to the position held, it is binding on the employee. It mainly concerns a working and employed workforce, overrepresented in feminized professions;
- chosen , granted to the employee at his request. It is more common among women and among non-managers in mixed and predominantly female trades. It responds to family motivations for women and professional motivations for men (other parallel job, training, studies). Women use part-time work more if they have children, especially at a young age, and a spouse (especially if the latter is a manager). Women with a bac + 2 level qualification are the ones who use part-time work the most.
A gender segregation of professions
According to the Dares report, for some analysts this imbalance in part-time work persists because women and men have different preferences and aptitudes leading them to different activities. Women are more likely to choose teaching or care professions. However, the skills used in these professions, considered natural, would be little recognized.
Other analysts believe that more or less explicit barriers hinder women’s access to certain stable and skilled jobs . These barriers result from ” defensive maneuvers ” by male workers and their representatives (requests for certifications, seniority conditions, etc.) aimed at preserving their advantages.
At the same time, part-time work has grown since its emergence in the 1970s. Initially designed to allow a better balance between work and private life, it was then used to fight unemployment and give more flexibility to companies. . Women, employed in poorly protected sectors, were the first victims of flexible working hours.