Published in May 2021, the interministerial report “we will age together … 80 proposals for a new pact between generations” provides a diagnosis of the demographic aging in progress. It then formulates proposals aimed at promoting the autonomy and social inclusion of the elderly. Finally, he calls for a major intergenerational contract around this cause, particularly in terms of housing.
An aging population
Three revolutions (digital, ecological and demographic) are transforming society and interact with each other.
The demographic transition must be better taken into account. It will affect the whole world. Africa’s population will explode in less than a century, dropping from 16% to 40% of the world’s population. For the populations of the European Union (EU) , the demographic projections for 2050, excluding migration, are as follows:
- a decrease in the population (from 517 to 473 million). This decrease will affect all countries, except Ireland (which will drop from 4.8 to 5.3 million inhabitants), the United Kingdom (from 65 to 66 million) and France (from 67 to 70 million);
- an aging population. Those aged 0-25 made up 32% of the EU population in 1990, and those aged 60 and over 20%. Their shares will rise to 25% and 35% respectively in 2050. Those aged 80 and over will then represent 0.5% of the African population, 3% of the Asian population, 4% of the world population and 10% of the population. European. In France, the number of 75-84 year olds will experience a dizzying increase between 2020 and 2030.
Necessary and urgent adaptations
Public policies must meet the needs of seniors and provide for the adaptation of society to an aging population which will have an impact in particular on the balance of territories and cities. Still according to the ministerial report, policies must go beyond the only health and social aspects for a panoramic approach mobilizing all the actors of collective life and taking into account different profiles of retirees:
- the active retiree, often involved in associations or citizens (55% of mayors had more than 60 years in 2020);
- the fragile retiree, who begins to have vulnerabilities (from the age of 75-80 on average);
- the restated loss of autonomy. The loss of autonomy occurs around the age of 85: this is the average entry age into a residential establishment for dependent elderly people (Ehpad)(new window)and the median age of beneficiaries of the personalized autonomy allowance (APA)(new window). The vast majority of seniors remain vulnerable without entering into dependency.
In order to enable older people to age well at home, the report presents a series of recommendations:
- adapt housing by integrating digital;
- make the city benevolent. The neighborhood and the city must be secure, designed for vulnerable people (roads, street furniture, etc.) and fight against isolation;
- facilitate mobility for the elderly;
- manage and attempt to limit territorial inequalities in the face of aging, by counting on national solidarity. The needs of seniors vary according to the place of residence (city center, priority district of the city(new window), peri-urban, rural, etc.). In 2050, the French metropolises will keep a young population, the oldest concentrating in the less populated areas of the center and the South-West, but especially in the West Indies.